According to a study by the United Nations World Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Washington based International Center for Research on Women, six out of ten Indian men admit to having been violent with their wives or partners. For the study, 9205 men, aged 18 to 49 were polled across Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, to understand their views on partner violence, that was defined as insults, intimidation and threats or physical and sexual pushing, punching and rape. The highest reports of violence came from Odisha and Uttar Pradesh, with more than 70 percent of men admitting to being abusive towards their wives and partners. Also, many men in India act in a manner that is predetermined by their gendered roles, socio-economic characteristics and childhood experiences. The study also polled 3158 women, 52 percent of whom said they had experienced some form of violence during their lifetime. The reason less women reported being victims was a feeling of shame or fear of social stigma. Women who were discriminated against as children, were three to six times more likely to experience violence. The head of UNFPA in India, Frederika Meijer said the research into the causes of violence would help structure programmes to engage men and boys more effectively.